The Swedish Secretary on Acid Rains

Karelian Republican Council of
All-Russian Society of Nature Protection

The Agreement "Cooperation"

The Guard of atmospheric air.
Sanitary-defensive zones of industrial enterprises:
the legal status, standertization, supervision, reporting.

Coordinator of project: Karelian republican Council of All-Russian society for nature protection

Coexecutors: Governing the natural resources and guard surrounding ambiences MPR Russia on Republic of Karelia, Gossanepidemnadzor, Main engineer of industrial enterprises of republic

Place of undertaking: Republic Karelia

Periods of undertaking: february-may 2003 (or february-december 2003)

Purpose: Provision of management for standartization and supervision sanitary defensive zones of industrial enterprises in Republic Karelia in realization of new Federal law "About guard surrounding ambiences", 2001 on base of consolidated requirements naturekeeping services, for the reason reductions of surges polluting materials in atmosphere.

Main notions:
     Sanitary-defensive zone (hereinafter SDZ) - territory between borders an enterprise zone and territory dwelling building.
     The Enterprise - object of economic activity, connected with production of product, work execution and rendering the services, which are realized with use the processes, equipment and technologies, being source of influence on ambience live and health of person, on soiling the atmospheric air.
     The Territory of enterprise - territory, executed in accordance with the established order by owner of enterprise for realization of economic activity.
     The Borders SDZ - line, limiting territory or maximum from planned projections a space, outside the which norming factors of influence do not exceed any determinations of hygenic standard.

     Happened politician-economic transformations in Russia, including ground relations, have influenced upon change traditional tactitians city building decisions, in particular to determination of value sanitary-defensive zone for industrial and public enterprises. On the one hand, expensive town lands, residing in sanitary-defensive zones of industrial enterprises, are characterized the high suply by engineering communications, developed infrastructure, but on the other hand, high level of soiling the atmospheric air, ground, vegetation by different chemical join. In terms established building of cities all more sharply in hygenic and ecological plan becomes the problem of provision norming values sanitary-defensive zone in accordance with requirements SanPin 2.2.1/ "Sanitary-defensive zones and sanitary categorization of enterprises, buildings and other objects" and city cuilding legislation of Russian Federation (RF).
     The Problem of ensuring the normative sanitary breakups from enterprises (I - V class of danger) of different types of industry, public and agriculture equally quip both in greater, and in small cities, villages of Republic Karelia. In accordance with acting sanitary legislation SDZ enterprizes and other objects are fixed depending on branch accesories, nature and powers of production on the basis of all types technogenic influences (chemical and physical factors) of object on surrounding ambience and health of population. Herewith not always in due degrees are taken into account:
  • accomodation (presence) on territory of enterprise of objects of keeping specifically hazmats (the propellents, ammonia, chlorine and others), their amount;
  • surge and actual spreading in surrounding ambience of materials, possessing "obtruding" scent (perfume, confectionery, tobacco factories, sewage cleaning building and others) and rural-economic enterprises (the bird-fabric and farms), motor transport;
  • separate types of production, enterprises and objects.
     The Deterioration of quality of ambience of living population is also connected with structured changes to economy, with accomodation and development, including not always in accordance with acting sanitary-hygenic and ecological legislation RF, enterprises of small business on leased territory. So, for instance, on territory is public-storage zones and in SDZ large machine-building, metallurgical and other enterprises are situated the food enterprises (the shop) of small business.
     At present in majority of cities in sanitary-defensive zones of enterprises with high level of soiling the atmospheric air lives the quite a number of population, is located enterprises of food industry, educational, medical-preventive and sanitary institutions, atheletic buildings, collective gardens, gardening area. The Organization sanitary-defensive zone and conclusion from it populations is conducted extremely slowly, or in general not to conduct.
     The Experience of work execution on organizations SDZ industrial enterprises allows to offer necessarying installment program of work execution:
  1. The Analysis of functional use the territory in region of location of enterprise, adjoining building; including:
    • functional zoning territory in accordance with general plan of populated item and/or region (the correlation and placing industrial and seliteb of zones);
    • volume and conditions of dwelling fund, disposed within normative and accounting SDZ enterprises;
    • territory and objects with normative determined by increased requirements to quality surrounding ambiences;
    • feature of enterprises, disposed in SDZ and zone of influence of under investigation enterprise;
    • climatic and meteorological feature of terrain, feature of forms of relief;
    • general plan enterprises and others.
  2. The Feature of technological process on base "primary" technical documentation (ТD) for the reason revision of list of toxic materials, used and creating in technological process (on existing position and on prospect of development of enterprise).
  3. The Calculation maximum and middle-year concentrations polluting materials in atmospheric air from under investigation enterprise with provision for contributions of surges of the same name materials of enterprises, disposed on under investigation territory, on base available declaimed inventory data of surges polluting materials and standards PDV. The Highlighting by accounting method of direct contribution of under investigation enterprise with use the program products of system of accounting monitoring the condition of atmospheric air, as well as levels of influence of physical factors. The Building normative SDZ on all factors.
  4. The Development and motivation naturekeeping actions (technical and technological) on prevention and reduction of negative influence of activity of enterprise on ambience of обитания population, including change the technological processes, change and/or modernization of equipment with introduction leading resoursekeeping, non-waste and minimum-waste technological decisions (including reconstruction or reprofiling production);
  5. calculation maximum and middle-year concentrations polluting materials in atmospheric air from under investigation enterprise on prospect of its development and prognosis estimation of levels of soiling the ambience living after introducing naturekeeping actions.
  6. The Feature of exposure of bad materials and risk assessment for health of population, living in region of accomodation of under investigation enterprise, in connection with influence priority polluters on existing position and with provision for prospects of development of enterprise and introduction naturekeeping actions.
  7. The Development of actions on:
    • reorganization and improvement SDZ, including offers on output baby and medical institutions from SDZ;
    • reprofiling production, separate shops, areas under more bad with hygienic standpoint or harmless and low-waste technology. Capital dwelling and public buildings can be remodeled for use them under objects official or economic purpose (the syllables, offices, trade and exhibition groundses and others.). Must be offered actions on preventive maintenance and rehabilitations health of population, living in СЗЗ and zone of negative influence of enterprise, including including realization of mechanisms of indemnifying the damage and insurances to liability from harm, caused здоровью and lifes and others.
  8. The Development and realization of project of organization СЗЗ, including:
    • actions on improvement and planting of trees and shrubs SDZ;
    • offers on functional, building, landscape zoning and planning of territory organization;
    • calculation of expenses on organizations SDZ with cut-in in them cost of planting of trees and shrubs and improvements, as well as expenseses, in accordance with withdrawal grounds under organization SDZ and outsiding veins, baby, medical and other institutions;
    • program and sequence of work execution.
     The Organization sanitary-defensive zones of industrial enterprises, particularly, in cities with неблагополучной sanitary-epydemiological situation can be not considered in take-off from the whole complex of measures and actions, realized as on territory of municipal formation (including city building an planning of decision) so and on the most enterprise (ensuring the safe terms of labour, preventive maintenance of professional diseases and others.).
     The Estimation of efficiency of the whole complex of proposed actions can and must be conducted on base of methodology of risk control, in particular, with use the methods of estimation "expenseses-advantages" and "expenseses-efficiency". Under "expenseses" is understood the amount of facilities (capital and current expenseses), provided for realization of actions on the whole life cycle, under advantages is understood the reduction of damage to health and lifes in money expression after realization of action, but under "efficiency" - reduction of risk to diseases and death-rate of population, living in zone of influence of enterprise.
     If in sanitary-defensive zones enter the land other ground users, that standards of tax with they fall pro rata to restrictions, inputing sanitary-defensive zones, and ecological damage, inflicted by enterprises. The Reduction of standards of tax must be compensated that enterprises, around which are situated sanitary-defensive zones.

  1. The Law about guard of atmospheric air. (?)
  2. The Law about guard surrounding ambiences. (?)
  3. SanPin 2.2.1/ "SANITARY-defensive zones and sanitary categorization of enterprises, buildings and other objects - М.: Minzdraf RF, 2001.
  4. V.B.Gurvich, S.V.Kuzmin, E.G.Plotko, M.V.Vinokurova, S.G.Tkachenko, M.V.Vinokurov, S.A.Voronin, S.V.Yarushin, L.I.Privalova FGU Centre gossanepidemnadzor in Sverdlovsk area, FGUN Ecaterinburg medical scientific centre of preventive maintenance and guard health of workers enterprises MZ RF, Ural state forest university, ANO Ural regional centre of ecological epydemiology
  5. The Resolution +04-10 from 25.09.98 on g.Ulyanovsk "About introducing the sanitary rules and rates on territory g.Ulyanovsk" (The Centre state sanitary-epydemiological control in g.Ulyanovsk).
  6. The Dictation +386-р from 16.08.2002. "About realization obligatory ecological sertification" Ministry of natural resources of Russian Federation.
  1. The Business trips on enterprises of Republic Karelia for the reason estimations existing and designed SDZ. February-April.
  2. Undertaking to republican conference "Organization and standartization sanitary-defensive zones" for main engineers of industrial enterprises. 26-27 April.
  3. Publishing the special issue Карельской ecological newspaper "Green leaf" on problems sanitary-defensive zones. February-April.
  4. Preparing the decision to conferences (the rules and standartizations SDZ). April.
  5. Preparation and publishing the material on web-site KRC ASNP. February-May.